Archive for the ‘Book Reviews’ category

“Clouds of Memories” by Mona Kahele

September 2, 2017

“To have Hawaiian blood is to be Hawaiian, but to love one another whether Hawaiian or any other ethnicity is also to be Hawaiian at heart.”

“Clouds of Memories” (2006) by Native Hawaiian historian, educator, and community leader Mona Kapapaokeali‘i Kapule Kahele (1921-2006) offers an autobiographical glimpse into rural Hawaiian life and stories from remote areas, specifically life in South Kona from the 1939s to the 1990s. It is a collection of diary entries, legends learned from Kahele’s grandparents and kupuna, and line drawings and maps. The book is divided into 6 sections: diary entries, early years, place names and legends, Miloli‘i stories, Miloli‘i legends, and fishing traditions.

“My material comes from my relatives on a hearsay basis and to me it is just like the clouds: they can paint an interesting story,” Kahele writes. “The clouds tell me more things than you can ever imagine. The formations that take place are out of this world.” She reveals, “All through the years, I kept these stories as my treasures. To me they mean a lifetime that cannot be repeated.”

Throughout “Clouds of Memories,” we see Kahele’s love of writing and her keen interest in writing down legends and stories to share (her grandmother Lokalia would save old scraps of paper and iron them for Kahale to write on). We feel her matter-of-fact acceptance about adapting to harsh living conditions, such as an abusive father, poverty, little food or water, and hard work. And we witness Kahele’s compassion, her devotion to children (from 1947 to 1959, they raised 23 children!).

Through diary entries, we learn that Kahele was born at Nāpo‘opo‘o (“the great dents,” named after two hollows in the land that were once fresh water ponds) in South Kona, Hawaii in 1921. Kahele’s family relied on the land for food and trade, and she grew up in relative poverty. According to hānai tradition, she was fostered with her father’s adopted mother, Tūtū Mele, and rescued from abuse by her paternal grandmother, Tūtū Lokalia. They moved to Hilo and stayed with relatives, until an uncle helped them find a small home of their own.

She married Abel, who came from the fishing village of Miloli‘i. They adopted a son and daughter, Danford and Dolly. They farmed coffee, avocados, and mangoes, until Kahele became sick and temporarily wheelchair-bound.

Kahele retells stories learned from kūpuna in Miloli‘i in 1946, written in Hawaiian and translated into English. The stories and legends reinforce Hawaiian beliefs about that the gods and ‘aumakua were benevolent and would help people, like the stories of Ānuenue, a princess of the rainbow; Kanuha, whose ‘aumakua rescued him from the people of the sea; Lilinoe and Waihua‘i, who were transformed into pools so the people would have water; and Kū‘ula and Hinapukui‘a, who heard the prayers from a poor village and helped them because of the villagers’ kindness. These stories reinforce the Hawaiian values of self-sacrifice and compassion in response to suffering and misfortune.

For me, Kahele’s acceptance of poverty and abuse is distressing, but the reality that young women and girls were abused by Westerners in the 1700s is heartbreaking. Kahele states with brutal honesty that in Nāpo‘opo‘o, they talk about “…the women folk who were enticed and taken aboard ship by Captain Cook’s men where they were raped and beaten. Some of the women were beaten badly because they wouldn’t do what the sailors wanted them to do. Some of them died and were thrown overboard into the water… Some of these women became pregnant. Others became very sick…” She states clearly, “Some young girls were stolen by the crew and taken aboard, raped, and held captive.”

Through her memories, we can experience the fear of family, the land that is not prosperous, the wrong-doings against the innocent, contrasted with Kahele’s own life in her caring for children, caring for the land as a farmer, and her determination to make sure that voices are heard.

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“The Tyranny of Meritocracy” by Lani Guinier

August 5, 2017

When I was a student, the goal of finishing high school was getting into college. We focused on earning good grades and high test scores to make us more appealing to college admissions officers. When my son started school, I started to question the content and number of standardized tests that students are required to take, before they even reach high school.

I didn’t really question the validity of standardized tests themselves, until I read “The Tyranny of Meritocracy: Democratizing Higher Education in America” (2015) by author and law professor Lani Guinier. It made me realize that I had bought into the idea of standardized tests as measuring intelligence and future success, when in many ways standardized tests are a snapshot of a student’s parents’ success.

“The Tyranny of Meritocracy” challenges us to adjust our understanding of the value of test scores to college admissions, in order to better reflect what we want to value in a democratic society.  It advocates that we shift from promoting testocratic merit (prioritizing individualized testing and competition) to democratic merit (prioritizing group collaboration and community contribution).

According to Guinier, most American universities are admissions-driven. They focus on the single moment of admission, rather than selecting students who will be active citizens in a democratic society. The best illustration of this shift in thinking comes from Malcolm Gladwell’s “New Yorker” article titled “Getting In,” which compares the United States and Canada university admissions process: the United States selection process is like a modeling agency that recruits people who are already beautiful, while the Canada selection process is like the Marine Corps that is confident that basic training will turn everyone into a soldier.

Changing the college admissions process. Instead of relying on standardized tests, Guinier asserts that we should consider a holistic admissions review, one in which “any individual’s potential is told both in the context of race and class, as well as the important role of mentorship, and the ability to work together.” She advocates more peer-to-peer instruction (pairing up students to discuss problems, so that students learn concepts and not just formulas) and peer collaboration (creating smaller study groups so that positive peer pressure encourages everyone to learn).

Collaboration, not competition. Guinier concludes that society needs to shift its emphasis from the individual to the group, from working alone to working inclusively, and from intelligence to communication. The ultimate objective of universities is responsible and engaged citizens, not workers. “Meaningful participation in a democratic society depends upon citizens who are willing to develop and utilize these three skills: collaborative problem solving, independent thinking, and creative leadership.”

Counter to the traditional American belief in the self-made man and the ideal that we can succeed through hard work, determination, and courage alone, Guinier creates a compelling and thought-provoking argument about the need to emphasize hard work and group effort, instead of “innate” ability and natural intelligence.

What is your experience with the college admissions process? Do you think that it works or do you think it is flawed? What do we expect from university graduates and how should universities help them succeed?

“A Prophecy Fulfilled” by Lance Tominaga

July 1, 2017

Clarence T.C. Ching was a frail, sickly child, but his father made a bold prediction about him: “If he survives, he will become an important, prosperous and outstanding man, and he will help the rest of the family.”

I didn’t realize his fragile beginning, the pressure to succeed, or the scope of his legacy until I read “A Prophecy Fulfilled: The Story of Clarence T.C. Ching” (2009) by a biography commissioned by The Clarence T.C. Foundation and written by writer Lance Tominaga. Ching helped his own family and also had lasting impact on Hawaii communities.

In this short biography, we see glimpses of his personal and business life. Clarence Thing Chock Ching (1912-1985) was born in Anahola, Kauai to Ching Hook and Hee Kam Sing. He was raised on Confucianist ideals of loving others, which was reinforced by the Christian ideal of charity. He was a champion boxer and graduated from St. Louis School in 1932. He married Dorothy “Dot” Sau Pung Tom, and raised three children.

I would have liked to read more personal anecdotes about Ching and his life in his own words, but we do learn that he was modest, unassuming, generous, visionary, and led with quiet decisiveness. He did not need to take credit for his philanthropy. He shared his wealth with his 10 siblings and his wife’s 9 siblings, and he shared his time and thoughtfulness with Governor John A. Burns and nonprofit boards like St. Francis Medical Center, St. Louis School, and Chaminade University.

In business, he was an astute risk-taker who dreamed big and kept his word. In 1956, Ching and his business partner Kan Jung Luke purchased Damon Tract in Kaloaloa for $4.5 million, and in 1957 he bought the ahupua‘a of Moanalua from Sam Damon for $9 million with a handshake deal. He helped develop affordable housing (Moanalua Hillside Apartments, Moanalua Gardens, Lakeside, Kukui Gardens), envisioned Honolulu Country Club, co-founded Hawaii National Bank in 1060, was a driving force behind Chinese Cultural Plaza, and had the foresight to recommend St. Francis Medical Center West (now Hawaii Medical Center West) in Leeward, rather than Pearl City.

Clarence has left an inspiring legacy. The Clarence T.C. Ching Foundation continues to fund education and human services. His story reminds us of the value of connections (a network of St. Louis School alumni), keeping your word, and giving back to the community. “I have been blessed with good fortune in this community,” Ching stated. “I consider the Kukui project an opportunity to discharge this obligation.”

In fact, Ching’s philanthropy and generosity touched my life in ways that I didn’t know before. My husband grew up in Kukui Gardens and ate at restaurants in the Chinese Cultural Plaza, and his parents purchased an apartment in Moanalua, along the Honolulu Country Club. Honolulu would be a very different place today without his influence, vision, and open-heartedness.

“Presence” by Amy Cuddy

June 3, 2017

When the movie “Iron Man 3” was released in 2013, my then 6-year old son loved to imitate Iron Man’s pose: standing straight, arms loose, shoulders back, chest out to display the unibeam (the arc reactor in the center of his chest). Whether his confidence grew out of strong body language or just something he was born with, he has very little fear about public speaking and voicing his opinions. He was learning about the power of presence.

Presence is “the state of being attuned to and able to comfortably express our true thoughts, feelings, values, and potential,” according to “Presence: Bringing Your BOLDEST SELF to Your BIGGEST CHALLENGES” (2016) by Harvard Business School professor and social psychologist Amy Cuddy. It is letting go of fear and being comfortable in your own skin.

The foundation of presence is personal power, which Cuddy discusses through anecdotes and research summaries. She declares that exhibit presence when we feel relaxed and powerful. Powerlessness makes us avoid; it impairs thought and makes us self-absorbed. In contrast, power makes us approach; it gives us confidence, lets us trust ourselves, protects us from negative emotions, and helps us connect to others.

We can all gain confidence through small self-nudges, small tweaks in our body language and mind-set. “Expanding your body language, through posture, movement, and speech makes you feel more confident and powerful, less anxious and self-absorbed, and generally more positive,” Cuddy writes.

The book offers encouraging and practical advice to follow before tests, meetings, negotiations, performances, or events. Here are some power nudges that work in Western cultures:

  • Empower your mindset: Take a few minutes to remember and reflect on a time when you felt personally powerful.
  • Straighten your posture: Adopt an open, comfortable posture. Take up your fair share of space. Imagine yourself standing like Wonder Woman or Superman.
  • Change your stride: Walk confidently, with longer strides and more arm movement.
  • Take your time while speaking: Speak slowly without rushing and make eye contact.
  • Be aware of your breathing: Breathe slowly and regularly through your nose.
  • Reframe anxiety as excitement: When you feel anxious, tell yourself to “get excited.”

My son is growing his personal power. He has run for class representative and participated in the speech club. He even did an “Iron Man” monologue for an audition piece. One morning before a performance, when he was feeling a little anxious, I gave him a “Presence” nudge: I told him that the fluttery feeling in his stomach was excitement. I wish I could tell that to myself and believe it, but I’m working on it.

For more stories about presence, visit Amy Cuddy’s website at http://amycuddy.com/stories/.

Do you have innate presence, or do you have to practice it? In your life, who has a commanding or compelling presence?

“Amazing Fantastic Incredible” by Stan Lee

May 6, 2017

Trading cards are what got me hooked on Marvel. I remember feverishly opening packs of Marvel cards, hoping for rare hologram cards, and once or twice splurging on a box so I could collect a complete set. I remember writing to Marvel to request an annual report, back when I didn’t have money to invest and Marvel wasn’t making a profit, and being amazed by its colorful, jaunty, comic book format.

Since then, Marvel has become an entertainment titan, and Stan Lee, the creative force behind Marvel Comics, has given us a glimpse into the forces that shaped him in his informal, offbeat memoir, written with Peter David and art by Colleen Doran.  “Amazing Fantastic Incredible: A Marvelous Memoir” (2015), appropriately enough, a graphic, full-color illustrated memoir that answers the question, “How did it happen?”

Lee was born Stanley Martin Lieber in New York City, New York on December 28, 1922 during the Great Depression. He spent most of his time reading – “I’d read the label on a bottle of ketchup if nothing else was around” and riding his bike – “It gave me freedom. I could go anywhere I wanted.” He gained self-confidence from his mother Celia and a strong work ethic from his father Jack, who was always looking for a better job.

The rise of Marvel began when Lee became an assistant to his uncle Rob and Jack Kirby at Atlas Comics, writing Captain America comics. When they left unexpectedly, publisher Martin Goodman put Stan in charge. After five years in the army, Lee returned to comic book writing and married Joan Boocock. He declares, “I was interested in creating stories that had human characters that could be relatable no matter what the reader’s age.”

Under Lee’s crafting, the Marvel Style focuses on characterization, realistic dialog, and humor. I enjoyed his one-line commentaries about his superheroes, like Spider-Man: “all the problems, hang-ups, and angst of any teen!” and Thor: because “How could any human be stronger than ol’ greenskin? Make him a god!” and X-Men: “Dedicated to all of the people in the world who have been mistreated because they were different in any way.”

Along the way, he also offers five tips for aspiring writers:

  1. “Write about things you know. Or else, be so vague that no one can pin you down.”
  2. Analyze everything you see.
  3. Proofread carefully. Pretend you’re the world’s toughest editor.
  4. “Keep rewriting until your script is as good as you can possibly make it.”
  5. “Don’t get discouraged.”

“Amazing Fantastic Incredible” is an exciting, enthusiastic, and humorous memoir about a reader who went on to become a writer and an actor. Its graphic novel format kept me engaged. I love his creativity (he has conversations with his younger self), sly humor, humility (he credits artists Gil Kane, Jack Kirby, Larry Lieber, and Steve Ditko; acknowledges his family, wife Joan and daughter Joanie; and focuses on his fans), unwillingness to make personal attacks, and the respectful way he mentions personal tragedies and professional failures.

“Amazing Fantastic Incredible” is the most entertaining memoir I’ve ever read, and it left me wanting to know more about the next chapters in Lee’s – and Marvel’s – extraordinary adventure.

“Georgia O’Keeffe’s Hawaii” by Patricia Jennings and Maria Ausherman

April 1, 2017

In 1939, Hawaiian Pineapple Co. (later the Dole Company) asked artist Georgia O’Keeffe to paint two pictures. According to a February 12, 1940 TIME Magazine article, “She agreed, on condition that she could paint whatever she pleased.” And in fact, stymied in her attempt to visit a plantation and dismayed by a cut-up pineapple, she refused to paint a pineapple.

“Georgia O’Keeffe’s Hawaii” (2011) offers a personal glimpse into O’Keeffe’s 1939 visit to Hawaii. Her visit is seen through the eyes of 12-year old Patricia Jennings, who served as O’Keeffe’s personal guide while the artist was on Maui, written with author and teacher Maria Ausherman. O’Keeffe spent 9 weeks in Hawaii, visiting Oahu, Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii Island. She painted 18 paintings in Hawaii, and two after she returned to New York.

The book is divided into roughly three sections: an introduction by Jennifer Saville, adapted from her book “Georgia O’Keeffe: Paintings of Hawaii” (1990), which offers a factual account of O’Keeffe’s visit; a personal narrative written by Patricia Jennings, who was 12 years old when O’Keeffe visited Maui and stayed at her home in Hāna; and an afterword by James Meeker, which highlights Hawaii’s lasting impression on O’Keeffe.

Through Jennings, we see a side of O’Keeffe who was daring enough to travel across the country alone to a new land, thoughtful and caring about a young girl, intensely private as she painted, temperamental about getting her way, and successful and confident enough to choose art instead of commercialism.

Of Jennings, she wrote in a letter to her husband Alfred Stieglitz: “The child too is so lovely – a flower in full bloom with the sun on it –“ In turn, O’Keeffe made a lasting impact on Jennings – she wrote, “But the deepest gift she offered me was the experience, in some way for the first time in my life, of really being listened to and appreciated for who I was.”

There are beautiful color prints of O’Keeffe’s paintings, as well as those of artist Robert Lee Eskridge, excerpts from letters, photographs, and transcripts of letters written in O’Keeffe’s curling, flowing handwriting. Interestingly, O’Keeffe used wavy lines to separate her thoughts and sentences, instead of standardized punctuation.

As I read “Georgia O’Keeffe’s Hawaii,” I asked my then 9-year old son to read “Georgia in Hawaii: When Georgia O’Keeffe Painted What She Pleased” (2012) by Amy Novesky. We talked a little about O’Keeffe’s decision not to paint pineapples: she was true to her artistic vision, but she also didn’t fulfill her implicit obligation to Dole Company. My son’s perspective: pineapples aren’t fun to paint, but O’Keeffe should have kept her word.

“The Power of Broke” by Daymond John

March 4, 2017

The Power of Broke

I’ve watched a few episodes of “Shark Tank” (ABC), and I find it to be both inspiring and intimidating. We get to meet passionate entrepreneurs and we watch the often brutal scrutiny of their dreams, or rather their business plans. So I was really interested to learn more about the successful “sharks,” written by successful “shark” and FUBU CEO and founder Daymond John.

“The Power of Broke: How Empty Pockets, a Tight Budget, and a Hunger for Success Can Become Your Greatest Competitive Advantage” (2016), written by Daymond John with Daniel Paisner, highlights wildly successful individuals who have a “power of broke” mindset. The mindset is simple: “When you’ve got nothing to lose, you’ve got everything to gain.” John writes, “The choice of whether to succeed – or not – is all mine.”

John’s writing is conversational and informal – you really feel as if he is talking to you in a coffee shop or bar. His advice is encouraging, down-to-earth, and passionate. I really appreciated his emphasis on how we are in control of our success or failure (it’s all in our attitude) and his commitment to setting goals – he consistently sets goals for health, family, business, relationships, and philanthropy, each with expiration dates.

John points out that the most innovative products, services, and brands happen organically, authentically, usually from the people on the streets, not in boardrooms. He identifies 5 “Shark Points” that will help us succeed:

Set a goal. Be realistic and commit to it.
Homework, do yours. Know your field. Know your competitors. Know your stuff.
Adore what you do. Love what you are doing.
Remember, you are the brand. Everything you say and do reflects your business.
Keep swimming. Always be on the looking for an opportunity.

While discussing successful founders and inventors who embody the Shark Points, John shares his personal story of growing up with a single mother who worked multiple jobs, but was there for him in high school to make sure he kept on track and out of trouble. In a way, it is a testament to dedicating parenting. From shoveling driveways to a ride-sharing business to selling clothes out of the back of a van, while coping with dyslexia, we see John’s determination to make a better life for himself, relying on hard-work and creativity in seeing a need (for clean driveways, for safe and fast transportation, for clothes that make a statement) and filling it.

Here are John’s 8 Broke Power Principles:

  1. Use all of the resources available to you to your smartest advantage, like other people’s money.
  2. Keep it real. Strive for authenticity in everything you do.
  3. Make the best use of your time, energy, actions, opportunity costs, and capital.
  4. Solve other people’s problems and you will be rewarded.
  5. Believe in yourself and your product, service, or business. People invest in people.
  6. Understand and appreciate everyone you meet on your path to success – investor, distributor, vendor, prospective buyer, and customer.
  7. Think beyond the moment.
  8. Expect success. Keep your goals in sight and in reach.

“The Power of Broke” assumes that you have found your passion, and that you need the inspiration and the tools to take it to the next level. Two entrepreneurs stood out for me: a football player who saw a need for moisture-wicking clothes for athletes and founded Under Armour (Kevin Plank); and a 9-year old who grew his passion for fashionable bow ties into a successful business (Moziah Bridges and his mother Tramica Morris). They had an idea, but not the know-how; and they were driven to succeed.

What are you passionate about? What product or service could you create that could make the world better?